Audio Basics with Arduino

Learn how to create tones and even entire songs using an Arduino.

This article was revised on 2022/09/28 by Hannes Siebeneicher.

This article highlights different approaches to making sounds and even entire songs with an Arduino. In 2013 Brett Hagman created the tone() library which is a good starting point for creating different types of sounds using an Arduino. As the examples in this article are gathered from the Arduino playground and were mostly created before 2013 a lot of steps are still done manually, which can be skipped when using the tone() library.

The examples are nevertheless still relevant as they explain some basic concepts of generating tone frequencies, interpolation and even provide you with some songs to try out. If you want to see an example for a simple melody using the tone() library and familiarize yourself with the concept of external sound data files, you can check out this example.

Most sketches in this article use pin 8 as output for the piezo buzzer or speaker which means you only need to connect your components a shown below and try out the different examples by uploading them to your Arduino. Only the PCMAudio example uses pin 11 as it is making us of PWM.

Hardware Required

  • Arduino board
  • piezo buzzer or a speaker
  • hook-up wires

Circuit

circuit

Schematic

schematic

Basics

Most times a piezo buzzer is used to produce sounds with an Arduino. When voltage is applied to a piezoelectric ceramic material it causes it to vibrate rapidly, resulting in the generation of sound waves. Every wave has an associated property called frequency which measures how many cycles happen every second. This unit of cycles is called Hertz (Hz). E.g., A middle C on the piano has a frequency of 262 Hz which means that the air oscillates back and forth 262 times every second.

Another property of a wave is its period, which equals to one divided by the frequency, measuring the length and time of the wave. So, for that middle C on the piano the cycle repeats every 3.8 milliseconds. While a normal pure tone is a sine wave, it is much easier to create a square wave using an Arduino by turning the pin on, waiting for a certain amount of time, then turning the pin off and waiting again.

Freqout

The following example was created by Paul Badger in 2007. It shows a simple tone generation function generating square waves of arbitrary frequency and duration. The program also includes a top-octave lookup table & transportation function.

1#include <math.h> // requires an Atmega168 chip
2
3#define outpin 8 // audio out to speaker or amp
4int ptime;
5int k, x, dur, freq, t;
6int i, j;
7
8
9float ps; // variable for pow pitchShift routine
10
11float noteval;
12
13// note values for two octave scale
14// divide them by powers of two to generate other octaves
15float A = 14080;
16float AS = 14917.2;
17float B = 15804.3;
18float C = 16744;
19float CS = 17739.7;
20float D = 18794.5;
21float DS = 19912.1;
22float E = 21096.2;
23float F = 22350.6;
24float FS = 23679.6;
25float G = 25087.7;
26float GS = 26579.5;
27float A2 = 28160;
28float A2S = 29834.5;
29float B2 = 31608.5;
30float C2 = 33488.1;
31float C2S = 35479.4;
32float D2 = 37589.1;
33float D2S = 39824.3;
34float E2 = 42192.3;
35float F2 = 44701.2;
36float F2S = 47359.3;
37float G2 = 50175.4;
38float G2S = 53159;
39float A3 = 56320;
40
41//octaves - corresponds to piano octaves
42float oct8 = 4;
43float oct7 = 8;
44float oct6 = 16;
45float oct5 = 32;
46float oct4 = 64;
47float oct3 = 128;
48float oct2 = 256;
49float oct1 = 512;
50float oct0 = 1024;
51
52//rhythm values
53int wh = 1024;
54int h = 512;
55int dq = 448;
56int q = 256;
57int qt = 170;
58int de = 192;
59int e = 128;
60int et = 85;
61int dsx = 96;
62int sx = 64;
63int thx = 32;
64
65// major scale just for demo, hack this
66
67float majScale[] = {
68 A, B, CS, D, E, FS, GS, A2, B2, C2S, D2, E2, F2S, G2S, A3};
69
70void setup() {
71 Serial.begin(9600);
72}
73
74
75void loop(){
76 for(i= 0; i<=11; i++){
77 ps = (float)i / 12; // choose new transpose interval every loop
78 for(x= 0; x<=15; x++){
79 noteval = (majScale[x] / oct4) * pow(2,ps); // transpose scale up 12 tones
80// pow function generates transposition
81// eliminate " * pow(2,ps) " to cut out transpose routine
82
83 dur = 100;
84 freqout((int)noteval, dur);
85
86 delay(10);
87 }
88 }
89}
90
91void freqout(int freq, int t) // freq in hz, t in ms
92{
93 int hperiod; //calculate 1/2 period in us
94 long cycles, i;
95 pinMode(outpin, OUTPUT); // turn on output pin
96
97 hperiod = (500000 / freq) - 7; // subtract 7 us to make up for digitalWrite overhead
98
99 cycles = ((long)freq * (long)t) / 1000; // calculate cycles
100 // Serial.print(freq);
101 // Serial.print((char)9); // ascii 9 is tab - you have to coerce it to a char to work
102 // Serial.print(hperiod);
103 // Serial.print((char)9);
104 // Serial.println(cycles);
105
106 for (i=0; i<= cycles; i++){ // play note for t ms
107 digitalWrite(outpin, HIGH);
108 delayMicroseconds(hperiod);
109 digitalWrite(outpin, LOW);
110 delayMicroseconds(hperiod - 1); // - 1 to make up for digitaWrite overhead
111 }
112pinMode(outpin, INPUT); // shut off pin to avoid noise from other operations
113
114}

Duration extension

In the example below some minor tweaks have been made, mostly changing the array to have durations and a sentinel was added to mark the end. The example shown above remains as it shows a great simplistic structure.

1float EIGHTH = 1;
2 float QUARTER = 2;
3 float DOTTED_QUARTER =3;
4 float HALF = 4;
5 float ETERNITY =-1;
6 float TEMPO = 150;
7
8 float majScale[] = {
9 A,QUARTER, B,QUARTER, CS,QUARTER, D,QUARTER, E,QUARTER, FS,QUARTER, GS,QUARTER, A2,QUARTER, B2,QUARTER,
10 C2S,QUARTER, D2,QUARTER, E2,QUARTER, F2S,QUARTER, G2S,QUARTER, A3,QUARTER, REST,ETERNITY
11 };
12
13 float odeToJoy[] = {
14 F2S,QUARTER, F2S,QUARTER, G2,QUARTER, A3,QUARTER, A3,QUARTER, G2,QUARTER, F2S,QUARTER, E2,QUARTER, D2,QUARTER,
15 D2,QUARTER, E2,QUARTER, F2S,QUARTER, F2S,DOTTED_QUARTER, E2,EIGHTH, E2,HALF, F2S,QUARTER, F2S,QUARTER, G2,QUARTER,
16 A3,QUARTER, A3,QUARTER,G2,QUARTER, F2S,QUARTER, E2,QUARTER, D2,QUARTER, D2,QUARTER, E2,QUARTER, F2S,QUARTER, E2,DOTTED_QUARTER,
17 D2,EIGHTH, D2,HALF, E2,QUARTER, E2,QUARTER, F2S,QUARTER, D2,QUARTER, E2,QUARTER, F2S,EIGHTH, G2,EIGHTH, F2S,QUARTER, D2,QUARTER,
18 E2,QUARTER, F2S,EIGHTH, G2,EIGHTH, F2S,QUARTER, E2,QUARTER, D2,QUARTER, E2,QUARTER, A,QUARTER, REST,ETERNITY
19 };
20
21 void play(float song[]) {
22 for(x= 0; x<10000; x=x+2) {
23 noteval = (song[x] / 64);
24 dur = TEMPO * song[x+1];
25 if(dur < 0) {
26 break;
27 freqout((int)noteval, dur);
28 delay(10);
29 }
30 }
31 }

Examples

Function Library

Smoothstep

This example is made by Dan Thompson in 2009 for smooth interpolation between two values. Smoothstep is a common formula used for many different applications such as Animation and Audio. This sketch includes a Serial Printout to help you visualize the formula. Visit danthompsonsblog.blogspot.com for the full smoothstep tutorial as well as many others. For a comprehensive overview of interpolation as well as some great Tips and Tricks visit this page.

Code

1///////////////////////////////////////
2// Smoothstep Interpolation Example //
3///////////////////////////////////////
4
5// Dan Thompson 2009
6//
7// Inpired by the code and chat on this site.
8// https://sol.gfxile.net/interpolation/
9//
10// Use this code at your own risk.
11//
12// This sketch was written with motion controlled timelapse photography
13// in mind. I have tried to make it generic enough to understand the smoothstep
14// concept so that one might adapt this powerful formula in other areas as well.
15//
16// For the full tutorial visit https://danthompsonsblog.blogspot.com/
17//
18// Usage:
19// 1. Upload the sketch to the Arduino.
20// 2. Click on the Serial monitor to see some visual feed back of the SMOOTHSTEP function.
21// 3. Scroll through the print out to see the SMOOTHSTEP curve.
22// 4. Play with the code and adapt it to your needs! ;)
23
24#define SMOOTHSTEP(x) ((x) _ (x) _ (3 - 2 \* (x))) //SMOOTHSTEP expression.
25
26int j = 0; //Just an Iterator.
27int i = 0; //Just another Iterator.
28float A = 0.0; //Input Min Value
29float B = 100.0; //Input Max Value
30float N = 100.0; //Input number of steps for transition
31float X; //final smoothstepped value
32float v; //smoothstep expression variable
33
34void setup() {
35Serial.begin(9600); //establish serial connection for debugging
36}
37
38void loop()
39{
40if (j < N) // Keep looping until we hit the pre-defined max number
41// of steps
42{
43v = j / N; // Iteration divided by the number of steps.
44v = SMOOTHSTEP(v); // Run the smoothstep expression on v.
45X = (B _ v) + (A _ (1 - v)); // Run the linear interpolation expression using the current
46//smoothstep result.
47for ( i=0; i < X ; i++) // This loop could the relevant code for each time your
48//motor steps.
49{
50Serial.print("1"); //Prints the number "1" for each step.
51 }
52Serial.print(" "); //Puts a space between each line of steps and their
53//corresponding float value
54Serial.println(X); // prints the soothstepped value
55Serial.println("CLICK!!!"); // this could be where you trigger your timelapse shutter
56j++; // Increments j by 1.
57}
58}

PCMAudio

The following example was created by Michael Smith and is the precursor for the PCM library created by David Mellis. It play's 8-bit PCM audio on pin 11 using pulse-width modulation (PWM). It uses two timers. The first changes the sample value 8000 times a second. The second holds pin 11 high for 0-255 ticks out of a 256-tick cycle, depending on the sample value. The second timer repeats 62500 times per second (16000000 / 256), which is much faster than the playback rate (8000 Hz), so it almost sounds halfway decent, just really quiet on a PC speaker.

Takes over Timer 1 (16-bit) for the 8000 Hz timer. This breaks PWM (analogWrite()) for Arduino pins 9 & 10. It then takes Timer 2 (8-bit) for the pulse width modulation, breaking the PWM for pins 11 & 13.

References:

Code

1#include <stdint.h>
2#include <avr/interrupt.h>
3#include <avr/io.h>
4#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
5
6#define SAMPLE_RATE 8000
7
8/*
9* The audio data needs to be unsigned, 8-bit, 8000 Hz, and small enough
10* to fit in flash. 10000-13000 samples is about the limit.
11*
12* sounddata.h should look like this:
13* const int sounddata_length=10000;
14* const unsigned char sounddata_data[] PROGMEM = { ..... };
15*
16* You can use wav2c from GBA CSS:
17* https://thieumsweb.free.fr/english/gbacss.html
18* Then add "PROGMEM" in the right place. I hacked it up to dump the samples
19* as unsigned rather than signed, but it shouldn't matter.
20*
21* https://musicthing.blogspot.com/2005/05/tiny-music-makers-pt-4-mac-startup.html
22* mplayer -ao pcm macstartup.mp3
23* sox audiodump.wav -v 1.32 -c 1 -r 8000 -u -1 macstartup-8000.wav
24* sox macstartup-8000.wav macstartup-cut.wav trim 0 10000s
25* wav2c macstartup-cut.wav sounddata.h sounddata
26*
27* (starfox) nb. under sox 12.18 (distributed in CentOS 5), i needed to run
28* the following command to convert my wav file to the appropriate format:
29* sox audiodump.wav -c 1 -r 8000 -u -b macstartup-8000.wav
30*/
31
32#include "sounddata.h"
33
34int ledPin = 13;
35int speakerPin = 11; // Can be either 3 or 11, two PWM outputs connected to Timer 2
36volatile uint16_t sample;
37byte lastSample;
38
39
40void stopPlayback()
41{
42 // Disable playback per-sample interrupt.
43 TIMSK1 &= ~_BV(OCIE1A);
44
45 // Disable the per-sample timer completely.
46 TCCR1B &= ~_BV(CS10);
47
48 // Disable the PWM timer.
49 TCCR2B &= ~_BV(CS10);
50
51 digitalWrite(speakerPin, LOW);
52}
53
54// This is called at 8000 Hz to load the next sample.
55ISR(TIMER1_COMPA_vect) {
56 if (sample >= sounddata_length) {
57 if (sample == sounddata_length + lastSample) {
58 stopPlayback();
59 }
60 else {
61 if(speakerPin==11){
62 // Ramp down to zero to reduce the click at the end of playback.
63 OCR2A = sounddata_length + lastSample - sample;
64 } else {
65 OCR2B = sounddata_length + lastSample - sample;
66 }
67 }
68 }
69 else {
70 if(speakerPin==11){
71 OCR2A = pgm_read_byte(&sounddata_data[sample]);
72 } else {
73 OCR2B = pgm_read_byte(&sounddata_data[sample]);
74 }
75 }
76
77 ++sample;
78}
79
80void startPlayback()
81{
82 pinMode(speakerPin, OUTPUT);
83
84 // Set up Timer 2 to do pulse width modulation on the speaker
85 // pin.
86
87 // Use internal clock (datasheet p.160)
88 ASSR &= ~(_BV(EXCLK) | _BV(AS2));
89
90 // Set fast PWM mode (p.157)
91 TCCR2A |= _BV(WGM21) | _BV(WGM20);
92 TCCR2B &= ~_BV(WGM22);
93
94 if(speakerPin==11){
95 // Do non-inverting PWM on pin OC2A (p.155)
96 // On the Arduino this is pin 11.
97 TCCR2A = (TCCR2A | _BV(COM2A1)) & ~_BV(COM2A0);
98 TCCR2A &= ~(_BV(COM2B1) | _BV(COM2B0));
99 // No prescaler (p.158)
100 TCCR2B = (TCCR2B & ~(_BV(CS12) | _BV(CS11))) | _BV(CS10);
101
102 // Set initial pulse width to the first sample.
103 OCR2A = pgm_read_byte(&sounddata_data[0]);
104 } else {
105 // Do non-inverting PWM on pin OC2B (p.155)
106 // On the Arduino this is pin 3.
107 TCCR2A = (TCCR2A | _BV(COM2B1)) & ~_BV(COM2B0);
108 TCCR2A &= ~(_BV(COM2A1) | _BV(COM2A0));
109 // No prescaler (p.158)
110 TCCR2B = (TCCR2B & ~(_BV(CS12) | _BV(CS11))) | _BV(CS10);
111
112 // Set initial pulse width to the first sample.
113 OCR2B = pgm_read_byte(&sounddata_data[0]);
114 }
115
116
117
118
119
120 // Set up Timer 1 to send a sample every interrupt.
121
122 cli();
123
124 // Set CTC mode (Clear Timer on Compare Match) (p.133)
125 // Have to set OCR1A *after*, otherwise it gets reset to 0!
126 TCCR1B = (TCCR1B & ~_BV(WGM13)) | _BV(WGM12);
127 TCCR1A = TCCR1A & ~(_BV(WGM11) | _BV(WGM10));
128
129 // No prescaler (p.134)
130 TCCR1B = (TCCR1B & ~(_BV(CS12) | _BV(CS11))) | _BV(CS10);
131
132 // Set the compare register (OCR1A).
133 // OCR1A is a 16-bit register, so we have to do this with
134 // interrupts disabled to be safe.
135 OCR1A = F_CPU / SAMPLE_RATE; // 16e6 / 8000 = 2000
136
137 // Enable interrupt when TCNT1 == OCR1A (p.136)
138 TIMSK1 |= _BV(OCIE1A);
139
140 lastSample = pgm_read_byte(&sounddata_data[sounddata_length-1]);
141 sample = 0;
142 sei();
143}
144
145
146void setup()
147{
148 pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT);
149 digitalWrite(ledPin, HIGH);
150 startPlayback();
151}
152
153void loop()
154{
155 while (true);
156}

The above sketch also requires the

sounddata.h
file which you can find below:

1// sounddata sound made by wav2c
2// (wav2c modified to use unsigned samples)
3
4/_ const int sounddata_sampleRate=8000; _/
5const int sounddata_length=10000;
6
7const unsigned char sounddata_data[] PROGMEM = {
8128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
9128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
10128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
11128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
12128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
13128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
14128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
15128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
16128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128,
17128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, 129, 127, 129, 128, 127, 133,
18117, 109, 125, 121, 116, 132, 140, 126, 114, 114, 116, 120, 114, 93, 73, 66, 76, 116, 142, 129,
19128, 129, 120, 119, 118, 104, 87, 123, 181, 194, 196, 198, 189, 176, 160, 162, 172, 164, 164, 183,
20197, 188, 168, 167, 170, 165, 185, 209, 206, 196, 196, 199, 185, 162, 156, 167, 176, 173, 170, 166,
21151, 142, 140, 134, 130, 127, 113, 86, 67, 66, 69, 75, 73, 75, 86, 90, 91, 84, 65, 48,
2241, 30, 26, 56, 91, 88, 72, 70, 73, 82, 89, 73, 57, 60, 74, 89, 92, 77, 63, 60,
2353, 47, 56, 64, 63, 61, 56, 54, 52, 36, 16, 22, 51, 66, 67, 70, 76, 88, 99, 92,
2477, 74, 85, 100, 106, 97, 83, 85, 96, 108, 133, 160, 164, 144, 113, 96, 91, 82, 74, 76,
2589, 97, 97, 97, 82, 54, 40, 41, 41, 43, 56, 74, 78, 64, 55, 64, 72, 72, 84, 102,
26108, 116, 126, 127, 124, 127, 134, 134, 138, 148, 152, 156, 164, 165, 169, 171, 160, 156, 157, 152,
27151, 145, 133, 136, 153, 166, 165, 163, 165, 161, 156, 158, 155, 147, 148, 160, 185, 209, 215, 220,
28220, 204, 200, 208, 205, 200, 202, 209, 214, 213, 205, 198, 194, 194, 203, 219, 231, 235, 230, 219,
29200, 184, 177, 170, 170, 177, 172, 164, 163, 158, 156, 160, 163, 161, 142, 116, 103, 96, 89, 93,
30101, 105, 111, 116, 120, 110, 89, 80, 78, 75, 73, 80, 93, 91, 77, 69, 70, 77, 91, 98,
3189, 87, 93, 95, 95, 94, 97, 96, 91, 94, 99, 100, 101, 95, 83, 78, 79, 71, 56, 41,
3237, 53, 64, 63, 72, 82, 83, 82, 80, 73, 67, 69, 69, 66, 68, 79, 99, 121, 143, 165,
33180, 174, 148, 131, 122, 112, 115, 120, 121, 126, 122, 108, 87, 72, 71, 73, 79, 81, 83, 86,
3483, 77, 70, 71, 85, 100, 112, 118, 130, 146, 154, 166, 174, 172, 172, 161, 147, 146, 153, 157,
35161, 165, 168, 170, 162, 138, 122, 121, 121, 123, 128, 138, 151, 161, 165, 161, 153, 150, 149, 147,
36136, 129, 140, 150, 156, 176, 194, 193, 179, 168, 167, 174, 185, 188, 181, 174, 164, 156, 156, 155,
37163, 185, 210, 224, 229, 235, 233, 215, 195, 176, 168, 170, 171, 168, 162, 162, 163, 165, 174, 181,
38184, 172, 151, 135, 125, 125, 132, 138, 139, 139, 139, 133, 121, 116, 117, 115, 104, 94, 94, 94,
3992, 90, 82, 70, 64, 69, 77, 82, 87, 85, 85, 92, 97, 105, 112, 108, 103, 107, 116, 122,
40121, 115, 101, 87, 80, 71, 67, 72, 70, 68, 78, 82, 78, 78, 79, 81, 79, 68, 59, 57,
4153, 60, 83, 106, 125, 146, 174, 192, 188, 186, 180, 161, 155, 157, 158, 156, 152, 148, 131, 117,
42111, 100, 97, 101, 104, 107, 110, 113, 112, 108, 106, 108, 122, 130, 141, 164, 175, 180, 185, 186,
43186, 182, 174, 167, 155, 150, 154, 155, 143, 132, 136, 139, 127, 114, 108, 107, 104, 103, 114, 120,
44124, 131, 134, 132, 123, 115, 109, 101, 108, 130, 144, 154, 161, 171, 184, 184, 171, 155, 147, 155,
45165, 165, 151, 142, 144, 136, 137, 152, 158, 162, 177, 200, 209, 206, 201, 181, 163, 159, 154, 154,
46151, 146, 161, 176, 170, 168, 175, 181, 176, 160, 148, 141, 138, 140, 140, 139, 140, 148, 155, 152,
47146, 135, 123, 111, 103, 110, 113, 100, 81, 62, 55, 52, 40, 33, 38, 60, 86, 95, 99, 106,
48111, 113, 105, 91, 87, 94, 101, 106, 103, 90, 76, 67, 63, 68, 72, 68, 63, 58, 68, 86,
4982, 68, 60, 56, 53, 45, 37, 40, 58, 77, 92, 110, 128, 149, 169, 174, 161, 151, 144, 139,
50142, 146, 146, 147, 142, 132, 129, 127, 116, 99, 94, 103, 113, 119, 122, 128, 133, 128, 119, 118,
51132, 160, 193, 215, 221, 222, 226, 224, 217, 211, 200, 181, 166, 158, 152, 148, 139, 125, 118, 118,
52119, 122, 123, 123, 124, 126, 127, 124, 127, 141, 143, 131, 118, 107, 110, 127, 146, 159, 163, 165,
53166, 164, 164, 160, 146, 131, 124, 135, 147, 145, 140, 138, 130, 124, 130, 136, 145, 163, 177, 182,
54181, 179, 177, 169, 159, 154, 155, 165, 176, 184, 195, 195, 183, 173, 163, 156, 158, 160, 159, 165,
55171, 164, 154, 154, 159, 167, 170, 167, 157, 141, 128, 120, 115, 111, 102, 95, 87, 64, 50, 49,
5645, 54, 77, 101, 123, 136, 139, 136, 128, 119, 112, 105, 101, 110, 123, 112, 94, 88, 78, 72,
5783, 89, 80, 69, 65, 57, 58, 64, 59, 53, 39, 16, 18, 36, 46, 66, 92, 107, 119, 135,
58145, 150, 160, 158, 147, 145, 144, 150, 160, 153, 150, 150, 140, 128, 120, 116, 104, 91, 88, 90,
59106, 123, 123, 123, 114, 100, 105, 119, 142, 181, 211, 222, 220, 214, 208, 204, 201, 186, 171, 166,
60162, 154, 138, 128, 120, 101, 93, 94, 103, 119, 117, 109, 109, 112, 119, 121, 121, 124, 122, 119,
61117, 124, 142, 158, 174, 183, 173, 168, 165, 149, 135, 132, 126, 119, 124, 127, 125, 133, 126, 111,
62116, 123, 127, 135, 145, 157, 167, 174, 176, 177, 182, 181, 184, 194, 194, 198, 213, 219, 219, 219,
63206, 184, 164, 153, 154, 163, 166, 162, 165, 164, 154, 154, 160, 161, 165, 166, 158, 146, 140, 130,
64122, 121, 109, 95, 89, 74, 61, 65, 74, 88, 110, 132, 149, 159, 149, 124, 107, 99, 91, 92,
6598, 101, 101, 90, 81, 84, 86, 82, 82, 80, 68, 58, 56, 53, 47, 42, 37, 35, 35, 30,
6628, 31, 40, 56, 74, 91, 99, 98, 101, 110, 114, 111, 110, 119, 127, 133, 140, 139, 128, 118,
67116, 109, 94, 87, 83, 79, 89, 110, 119, 116, 117, 117, 114, 117, 116, 119, 137, 164, 191, 204,
68192, 180, 180, 175, 161, 152, 149, 139, 128, 122, 111, 98, 89, 88, 93, 97, 94, 98, 104, 101,
69107, 119, 117, 121, 140, 152, 157, 164, 165, 171, 183, 190, 194, 191, 182, 172, 166, 154, 137, 132,
70134, 134, 138, 141, 130, 120, 123, 123, 120, 117, 109, 110, 125, 150, 168, 164, 163, 179, 196, 210,
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443145, 134, 128, 126, 123, 118, 115, 122, 142, 157, 163, 166, 171, 178, 181, 178, 173, 172, 172, 167,
444170, 185, 188, 173, 158, 152, 155, 157, 151, 140, 133, 134, 141, 144, 145, 155, 175, 187, 186, 177,
445177, 189, 196, 193, 190, 183, 167, 146, 127, 115, 110, 107, 98, 90, 87, 82, 71, 64, 66, 75,
44683, 81, 79, 83, 93, 107, 114, 106, 100, 107, 110, 109, 110, 106, 101, 96, 92, 96, 99, 91,
44780, 71, 63, 61, 63, 61, 59, 60, 61, 57, 52, 61, 88, 116, 126, 121, 115, 118, 123, 130,
448136, 131, 123, 120, 114, 111, 109, 98, 85, 77, 72, 65, 54, 43, 34, 28, 28, 35, 45, 63,
44987, 105, 113, 112, 117, 141, 164, 170, 171, 169, 162, 161, 164, 164, 166, 168, 169, 169, 168, 166,
450164, 167, 175, 178, 173, 172, 174, 181, 192, 190, 180, 172, 167, 164, 158, 154, 151, 145, 139, 131,
451129, 134, 132, 124, 128, 136, 135, 136, 137, 129, 125, 131, 137, 138, 132, 133, 154, 172, 172, 169,
452172, 174, 174, 180, 185, 186, 187, 184, 180, 183, 181, 171, 167, 164, 159, 154, 144, 134, 136, 140,
453138, 140, 142, 151, 178, 194, 191, 185, 180, 186, 194, 189, 181, 171, 155, 137, 123, 116, 112, 112,
454111, 102, 93, 85, 77, 72, 71, 78, 86, 84, 86, 104, 121, 123, 113, 100, 94, 98, 105, 107,
455105, 100, 96, 93, 86, 79, 78, 72, 58, 52, 54, 57, 65, 69, 65, 62, 60, 60, 62, 70,
45692, 112, 111, 106, 114, 126, 131, 130, 130, 128, 123, 121, 121, 122, 119, 110, 99, 85, 72, 63,
45754, 44, 34, 27, 31, 43, 57, 71, 94, 112, 112, 109, 111, 128, 147, 148, 147, 153, 155, 154,
458150, 150, 154, 157, 157, 160, 167, 168, 166, 171, 176, 171, 163, 161, 167, 178, 193, 196, 184, 175,
459166, 163, 166, 162, 156, 149, 137, 126, 121, 125, 132, 138, 137, 132, 132, 137, 144, 146, 139, 138,
460143, 146, 148, 150, 157, 167, 164, 158, 159, 166, 176, 182, 188, 193, 196, 198, 198, 197, 195, 184,
461169, 160, 155, 149, 151, 156, 150, 140, 137, 138, 142, 147, 164, 183, 187, 181, 173, 169, 171, 165,
462153, 148, 142, 130, 118, 112, 116, 119, 115, 111, 108, 99, 87, 80, 78, 80, 84, 98, 114, 120,
463125, 125, 113, 103, 98, 94, 102, 107, 102, 102, 103, 94, 78, 66, 67, 70, 66, 61, 55, 56,
46470, 80, 80, 76, 67, 62, 58, 53, 69, 92, 101, 113, 123, 122, 123, 127, 131, 133, 133, 132,
465129, 130, 130, 123, 109, 92, 76, 63, 55, 52, 48, 43, 46, 60, 71, 76, 95, 110, 105, 95,
46689, 94, 112, 120, 124, 137, 146, 144, 137, 133, 139, 146, 153, 160, 167, 169, 166, 165, 171, 170,
467164, 166, 170, 172, 176, 181, 181, 177, 171, 165, 163, 157, 145, 134, 132, 133, 125, 119, 131, 145,
468145, 142, 142, 139, 139, 145, 150, 152, 155, 161, 159, 152, 156, 167, 173, 175, 174, 170, 175, 181,
469185, 191, 199, 205, 203, 191, 182, 177, 172, 169, 164, 161, 165, 167, 163, 156, 154, 158, 157, 154,
470158, 168, 175, 172, 163, 155, 156, 158, 151, 145, 143, 137, 127, 119, 115, 117, 125, 127, 113, 96,
47184, 81, 85, 88, 98, 123, 133, 125, 125, 128, 121, 111, 98, 90, 92, 94, 92, 87, 87, 91,
47285, 73, 66, 61, 61, 60, 55, 50, 49, 58, 66, 61, 51, 46, 46, 47, 54, 74, 99, 115,
473116, 116, 120, 121, 119, 120, 124, 130, 132, 127, 117, 108, 108, 107, 93, 77, 65, 61, 59, 54,
47459, 75, 83, 85, 91, 96, 94, 92, 91, 88, 93, 115, 134, 135, 131, 136, 142, 141, 138, 140,
475149, 158, 161, 158, 153, 159, 171, 169, 166, 174, 178, 172, 171, 174, 177, 177, 168, 156, 147, 137,
476131, 130, 126, 128, 137, 143, 138, 132, 135, 141, 141, 133, 131, 138, 145, 148, 150, 156, 165, 169,
477169, 174, 181, 185, 184, 175, 169, 175, 182, 184, 185, 189, 191, 186, 178, 171, 167, 171, 176, 176,
478171, 173, 179, 175, 172, 176, 173, 170, 172, 174, 176, 181, 182, 173, 162, 156, 154, 154, 145, 134,
479134, 134, 128, 119, 115, 114, 106, 96, 89, 85, 87, 98, 117, 135, 139, 134, 134, 135, 135, 127,
480112, 102, 95, 94, 99, 101, 97, 95, 95, 90, 82, 68, 52, 46, 45, 40, 35, 42, 50, 47,
48144, 47, 45, 46, 65, 91, 106, 115, 124, 123, 117, 115, 118, 117, 122, 126, 122, 120, 122, 119,
482110, 100, 90, 78, 68, 63, 57, 53, 62, 79, 86, 87, 93, 97, 96, 93, 88, 86, 93, 112,
483130, 130, 126, 129, 136, 143, 148, 147, 144, 143, 142, 150, 159, 162, 168, 170, 171, 174, 174, 170,
484169, 174, 178, 177, 175, 167, 152, 145, 141, 130, 133, 148, 156, 155, 151, 141, 134, 134, 129, 121,
485121, 127, 130, 136, 149, 166, 178, 184, 193, 195, 192, 191, 184, 174, 172, 175, 180, 183, 184, 181,
486178, 179, 172, 163, 163, 170, 172, 169, 168, 172, 171, 168, 167, 169, 167, 162, 162, 165, 170, 174,
487174, 168, 155, 145, 141, 137, 126, 115, 117, 125, 125, 118, 108, 100, 91, 79, 74, 79, 90, 109,
488128, 140, 146, 149, 153, 147, 134, 127, 118, 107, 105, 109, 112, 107, 98, 96, 94, 84, 72, 57,
48943, 36, 30, 22, 21, 25, 30, 40, 46, 42, 48, 70, 91, 104, 113, 126, 136, 132, 128, 127,
490126, 126, 126, 129, 137, 138, 132, 125, 113, 102, 92, 77, 67, 57, 52, 62, 72, 80, 89, 90,
49193, 95, 87, 89, 99, 99, 98, 110, 123, 129, 127, 125, 127, 133, 137, 137, 140, 148, 151, 152,
492156, 157, 158, 165, 172, 172, 166, 162, 166, 170, 166, 162, 162, 157, 152, 149, 145, 146, 147, 152,
493162, 164, 157, 150, 140, 129, 120, 112, 105, 108, 123, 145, 163, 170, 177, 186, 192, 195, 192, 189,
494187, 182, 181, 181, 181, 188, 191, 189, 189, 182, 173, 174, 176, 176, 177, 178, 174, 165, 160, 163,
495167, 164, 158, 157, 162, 165, 160, 155, 153, 142, 133, 137, 140, 132, 124, 116, 110, 109, 108, 106,
496102, 97, 91, 87, 83, 85, 94, 114, 135, 145, 146, 144, 142, 140, 130, 119, 115, 113, 112, 109,
497106, 108, 103, 91, 87, 80, 67, 54, 42, 29, 18, 9, 5, 13, 27, 38, 48, 54, 56, 68,
49891, 110, 117, 119, 121, 123, 129, 134, 135, 138, 144, 144, 144, 142, 133, 120, 105, 92, 83, 72,
49962, 58, 57, 61, 70, 78, 83, 92, 99, 101, 104, 107, 106, 107, 111, 119, 129, 135, 135, 131,
500129, 132, 133, 134, 136, 142, 149, 150, 149, 150, 153, 161, 169, 169, 163, 157, 157, 159, 156, 152,
501155, 160, 161, 164, 169, 170, 172, 172, 173, 173, 166, 152, 137, 128, 119, 109, 109, 121, 134, 145,
502156, 160, 161, 166, 174, 184, 191, 189, 186, 185, 178, 173, 182, 193, 203, 204, 198, 197, 196, 192,
503187, 182, 180, 177, 175, 173, 168, 166, 169, 171, 170, 169, 168, 165, 154, 143, 134, 128, 126, 130,
504133, 130, 124, 113, 101, 101, 102, 98, 98, 98, 97, 96, 99, 104, 108, 119, 131, 134, 132, 130,
505132, 135, 131, 123, 121, 121, 117, 110, 105, 99, 95, 89, 85, 81, 69, 55, 43, 29, 17, 12,
50616, 26, 33, 42, 55, 61, 67, 77, 91, 107, 118, 120, 125, 128, 130, 134, 140, 145, 146, 143,
507142, 136, 124, 111, 96, 80, 69, 62, 59, 57, 52, 50, 56, 65, 74, 86, 96, 109, 116,
508};

Rick Roll

The following example was created by Samantha Lagestee in 2017. Inspired by the popular meme, this code rickrolls people by playing the song "Never Gonna Give You Up" by Rick Astley on a piezo buzzer. Open the serial port to see the lyrics and sing along.

Code

1/\* Rick Roll Code
2AUTHOR: Samantha Lagestee
3Copyright 2017 samilagestee at gmail dot com
4
5 This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or
6 modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
7 published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of
8 the License, or (at your option) any later version.
9
10 DISCLAIMER: The song "Never Gonna Give You Up" by Rick Astley
11 is not the creative property of the author. This code simply
12 plays a Piezo buzzer rendition of the song.
13
14\*/
15
16#define a3f 208 // 208 Hz
17#define b3f 233 // 233 Hz
18#define b3 247 // 247 Hz
19#define c4 261 // 261 Hz MIDDLE C
20#define c4s 277 // 277 Hz
21#define e4f 311 // 311 Hz
22#define f4 349 // 349 Hz
23#define a4f 415 // 415 Hz
24#define b4f 466 // 466 Hz
25#define b4 493 // 493 Hz
26#define c5 523 // 523 Hz
27#define c5s 554 // 554 Hz
28#define e5f 622 // 622 Hz
29#define f5 698 // 698 Hz
30#define f5s 740 // 740 Hz
31#define a5f 831 // 831 Hz
32
33#define rest -1
34
35// change these pins according to your setup
36int piezo = 8;
37int led = 9;
38
39volatile int beatlength = 100; // determines tempo
40float beatseparationconstant = 0.3;
41
42int a; // part index
43int b; // song index
44int c; // lyric index
45
46boolean flag; // play/pause
47
48// Parts 1 and 2 (Intro)
49
50int song1_intro_melody[] =
51{c5s, e5f, e5f, f5, a5f, f5s, f5, e5f, c5s, e5f, rest, a4f, a4f};
52
53int song1_intro_rhythmn[] =
54{6, 10, 6, 6, 1, 1, 1, 1, 6, 10, 4, 2, 10};
55
56// Parts 3 or 5 (Verse 1)
57
58int song1_verse1_melody[] =
59{ rest, c4s, c4s, c4s, c4s, e4f, rest, c4, b3f, a3f,
60rest, b3f, b3f, c4, c4s, a3f, a4f, a4f, e4f,
61rest, b3f, b3f, c4, c4s, b3f, c4s, e4f, rest, c4, b3f, b3f, a3f,
62rest, b3f, b3f, c4, c4s, a3f, a3f, e4f, e4f, e4f, f4, e4f,
63c4s, e4f, f4, c4s, e4f, e4f, e4f, f4, e4f, a3f,
64rest, b3f, c4, c4s, a3f, rest, e4f, f4, e4f
65};
66
67int song1_verse1_rhythmn[] =
68{ 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 5,
691, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 2, 1, 5,
701, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3,
711, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 4,
725, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2,
732, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 1, 1, 3
74};
75
76char\* lyrics_verse1[] =
77{ "We're ", "no ", "strangers ", "", "to ", "love ", "", "\r\n",
78"You ", "know ", "the ", "rules ", "and ", "so ", "do ", "I\r\n",
79"A ", "full ", "commitment's ", "", "", "what ", "I'm ", "thinking ", "", "of", "\r\n",
80"You ", "wouldn't ", "", "get ", "this ", "from ", "any ", "", "other ", "", "guy\r\n",
81"I ", "just ", "wanna ", "", "tell ", "you ", "how ", "I'm ", "feeling", "\r\n",
82"Gotta ", "", "make ", "you ", "understand", "", "\r\n"
83};
84
85// Parts 4 or 6 (Chorus)
86
87int song1_chorus_melody[] =
88{ b4f, b4f, a4f, a4f,
89f5, f5, e5f, b4f, b4f, a4f, a4f, e5f, e5f, c5s, c5, b4f,
90c5s, c5s, c5s, c5s,
91c5s, e5f, c5, b4f, a4f, a4f, a4f, e5f, c5s,
92b4f, b4f, a4f, a4f,
93f5, f5, e5f, b4f, b4f, a4f, a4f, a5f, c5, c5s, c5, b4f,
94c5s, c5s, c5s, c5s,
95c5s, e5f, c5, b4f, a4f, rest, a4f, e5f, c5s, rest
96};
97
98int song1_chorus_rhythmn[] =
99{ 1, 1, 1, 1,
1003, 3, 6, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 1, 2,
1011, 1, 1, 1,
1023, 3, 3, 1, 2, 2, 2, 4, 8,
1031, 1, 1, 1,
1043, 3, 6, 1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 1, 2,
1051, 1, 1, 1,
1063, 3, 3, 1, 2, 2, 2, 4, 8, 4
107};
108
109char\* lyrics_chorus[] =
110{ "Never ", "", "gonna ", "", "give ", "you ", "up\r\n",
111"Never ", "", "gonna ", "", "let ", "you ", "down", "", "\r\n",
112"Never ", "", "gonna ", "", "run ", "around ", "", "", "", "and ", "desert ", "", "you\r\n",
113"Never ", "", "gonna ", "", "make ", "you ", "cry\r\n",
114"Never ", "", "gonna ", "", "say ", "goodbye ", "", "", "\r\n",
115"Never ", "", "gonna ", "", "tell ", "a ", "lie ", "", "", "and ", "hurt ", "you\r\n"
116};
117
118void setup()
119{
120pinMode(piezo, OUTPUT);
121pinMode(led, OUTPUT);
122digitalWrite(led, LOW);
123Serial.begin(9600);
124flag = true;
125a = 4;
126b = 0;
127c = 0;
128}
129
130void loop()
131{
132// edit code here to define play conditions
133/_
134if (CONDITION 1) { // play
135flag = true;
136}
137else if (CONDITION2) { // pause
138flag = false;
139}
140_/
141
142// play next step in song
143if (flag == true) {
144play();
145}
146}
147
148void play() {
149int notelength;
150if (a == 1 || a == 2) { // Intro
151// intro
152notelength = beatlength _ song1_intro_rhythmn[b];
153if (song1_intro_melody[b] > 0) { // if not a rest, play note
154digitalWrite(led, HIGH);
155tone(piezo, song1_intro_melody[b], notelength);
156}
157b++;
158if (b >= sizeof(song1_intro_melody) / sizeof(int)) {
159a++;
160b = 0;
161c = 0;
162}
163}
164else if (a == 3 || a == 5) { // Verse 1
165// verse
166notelength = beatlength _ 2 _ song1_verse1_rhythmn[b];
167if (song1_verse1_melody[b] > 0) {
168digitalWrite(led, HIGH);
169Serial.print(lyrics_verse1[c]);
170tone(piezo, song1_verse1_melody[b], notelength);
171c++;
172}
173b++;
174if (b >= sizeof(song1_verse1_melody) / sizeof(int)) {
175a++;
176b = 0;
177c = 0;
178}
179}
180else if (a == 4 || a == 6) { //chorus
181// chorus
182notelength = beatlength _ song1_chorus_rhythmn[b];
183if (song1_chorus_melody[b] > 0) {
184digitalWrite(led, HIGH);
185Serial.print(lyrics_chorus[c]);
186tone(piezo, song1_chorus_melody[b], notelength);
187c++;
188}
189b++;
190if (b >= sizeof(song1_chorus_melody) / sizeof(int)) {
191Serial.println("");
192a++;
193b = 0;
194c = 0;
195}
196}
197delay(notelength); // necessary because piezo is on independent timer
198noTone(piezo);
199digitalWrite(led, LOW);
200delay(notelength \* beatseparationconstant); // create separation between notes
201if (a == 7) { // loop back around to beginning of song
202a = 1;
203}
204}

MusicalAlgoFun

This is a simple song with the Arduino created by Alexandre Quessy in 2006.

Code

1/\*
2
3- Au Clair de la Lune with an Arduino and a PC speaker.
4- The calculation of the tones is made following the mathematical
5- operation:
6-
7- timeUpDown = 1/(2 * toneFrequency) = period / 2
8- )c( Copyleft AlexandreQuessy 2006 http://alexandre.quessy.net
9- Inspired from D. Cuartielles's http://www.arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/PlayMelody
10 \*/
11
12int ledPin = 9;
13int speakerOut = 8;
14
15/_ 2 octavas :: semitones. 0 = do, 2 = re, etc. _/
16/_ MIDI notes from 48 to 71. Indices here are from 0 to 23. _/
17
18int timeUpDown[] = {3822, 3606, 3404, 3214, 3032, 2862,
192702, 2550, 2406, 2272, 2144, 2024,
201911, 1803, 1702, 1607, 1516, 1431,
211351, 1275, 1203, 1136, 1072, 1012};
22/_ our song. Each number is a (MIDI note - 48) on a beat. _/
23
24byte song[] = {12,12,12,14, 16,16,14,14, 12,16,14,14, 12,12,12,12,
2514,14,14,14, 9,9,9,9, 14,12,11,9, 7,7,7,7};
26// do do do re mi re do mi re re do...
27
28byte beat = 0;
29int MAXCOUNT = 32;
30float TEMPO_SECONDS = 0.2;
31byte statePin = LOW;
32byte period = 0;
33int i, timeUp;
34
35void setup() {
36pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT);
37pinMode(speakerOut, OUTPUT);
38}
39
40void loop() {
41digitalWrite(speakerOut, LOW);
42 for (beat = 0; beat < MAXCOUNT; beat++) {
43statePin = !statePin;
44digitalWrite(ledPin, statePin);
45
46 timeUp = timeUpDown[song[beat]];
47
48 period = ((1000000 / timeUp) / 2) * TEMPO_SECONDS;
49 for (i = 0; i < period; i++) {
50 digitalWrite(speakerOut, HIGH);
51 delayMicroseconds(timeUp);
52 digitalWrite(speakerOut, LOW);
53 delayMicroseconds(timeUp);
54 }
55 /* Uncomment this if you want notes to be discrete */
56 /* delay(50); */
57
58}
59digitalWrite(speakerOut, LOW);
60delay(1000);
61}

Improved version

1/\*
2
3- Square wave tune with an Arduino and a PC speaker.
4- The calculation of the tones is made following the mathematical
5- operation:
6-
7- timeUpDown = 1/(2 \* toneFrequency) = period / 2
8- )c( Copyleft 2009 Daniel Gimpelevich
9- Inspired from AlexandreQuessy's https://playground.arduino.cc/Code/MusicalAlgoFun
10 \*/
11
12const byte ledPin = 13;
13const byte speakerOut = 11; /_ This makes a standard old PC speaker connector fit nicely over the pins. _/
14
15/_ 10.5 octaves :: semitones. 60 = do, 62 = re, etc. _/
16/_ MIDI notes from 0, or C(-1), to 127, or G9. _/
17/_ Rests are note number -1. _/
18
19unsigned int timeUpDown[128];
20
21/_ our song. Each number pair is a MIDI note and a note symbol. _/
22/_ Symbols are 1 for whole, -1 for dotted whole, 2 for half, _/
23/_ -2 for dotted half, 4 for quarter, -4 for dotted quarter, etc. _/
24
25const byte BPM = 120;
26const char song[] = {
2764,4,64,4,65,4,67,4, 67,4,65,4,64,4,62,4,
2860,4,60,4,62,4,64,4, 64,-4,62,8,62,2,
2964,4,64,4,65,4,67,4, 67,4,65,4,64,4,62,4,
3060,4,60,4,62,4,64,4, 62,-4,60,8,60,2,
3162,4,62,4,64,4,60,4, 62,4,64,8,65,8,64,4,60,4,
3262,4,64,8,65,8,64,4,62,4, 60,4,62,4,55,2,
3364,4,64,4,65,4,67,4, 67,4,65,4,64,4,62,4,
3460,4,60,4,62,4,64,4, 62,-4,60,8,60,2};
35
36int period, i;
37unsigned int timeUp, beat;
38byte statePin = LOW;
39const float TEMPO_SECONDS = 60.0 / BPM;
40const unsigned int MAXCOUNT = sizeof(song) / 2;
41
42void setup() {
43pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT);
44pinMode(speakerOut, OUTPUT);
45for (i = 128; i--;)
46timeUpDown[i] = 1000000 / (pow(2, (i - 69) / 12.0) \* 880);
47}
48
49void loop() {
50digitalWrite(speakerOut, LOW);
51 for (beat = 0; beat < MAXCOUNT; beat++) {
52statePin = !statePin;
53digitalWrite(ledPin, statePin);
54
55 i = song[beat * 2];
56 timeUp = (i < 0) ? 0 : timeUpDown[i];
57
58 period = (timeUp ? (1000000 / timeUp) / 2 : 250) * TEMPO_SECONDS
59 * 4 / song[beat * 2 + 1];
60 if (period < 0)
61 period = period * -3 / 2;
62 for (i = 0; i < period; i++) {
63 digitalWrite(speakerOut, timeUp ? HIGH : LOW);
64 delayMicroseconds(timeUp ? timeUp : 2000);
65 digitalWrite(speakerOut, LOW);
66 delayMicroseconds(timeUp ? timeUp : 2000);
67 }
68 delay(50);
69
70}
71digitalWrite(speakerOut, LOW);
72delay(1000);
73}

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